More on Surveillance – H.H. Dalai Lama

This from The Guardian

Dalai Lama’s inner circle listed in Pegasus project data

Indian government, which hosts the Tibetan leader, suspected of being NSO client that selected numbers

“China’s nearest observation posts are hundreds of miles from Dharamsala, the city in the foothills of the Indian Himalayas that hosts Tibet’s government-in-exile and its highest spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama. Still, Tibetans there have often felt closely watched.

Suspected Chinese spies have regularly been detected in the hill station. A decade ago, a digital security specialist watched in disbelief as sensitive files on Tibetan government computers were extracted on the screen before his eyes – activity that led to the unearthing of a massive cyber-espionage network, known as GhostNet, which was largely traced to Chinese servers.

Surveillance technology has evolved, and leaked data points to another possible interest in Tibetan communications – this time from a less obvious source.

Phone numbers of a top ring of advisers around the Dalai Lama are believed to have been selected as those of people of interest by government clients of NSO Group. Analysis strongly indicates that the Indian government was selecting the potential targets.”

—–

“Other phone numbers apparently selected by Delhi were those of the president of the government-in-exile, Lobsang Sangay, staff in the office of another Buddhist spiritual leader, the Gyalwang Karmapa, and several other activists and clerics who are part of the exiled community in India.”

The data may provide a glimpse at the delicate relationship between Tibet’s exiles and the Indian government, which has provided refuge for the movement since its leaders fled a Chinese crackdown in 1959, while also viewing it as leverage – and sometimes a liability – in its own relationship with Beijing.

The possible scrutiny of Tibetan spiritual and government leaders points to a growing awareness in Delhi, as well as in western capitals, of the strategic importance of Tibet as their relationships with China have grown more tense over the past five years.

It also highlights the growing urgency of the question of who will follow the current Dalai Lama, 86, a globally acclaimed figure whose death is likely to trigger a succession crisis that is already drawing in world powers. Last year the US made it a policy to impose sanctions against any government that interfered with the selection process.

The records suggest Tibetan leaders were first selected in late 2017, in the period before and after the former US president Barack Obama met the Dalai Lama privately on a foreign tour that also included earlier stops in China.

Senior advisers to the Dalai Lama whose numbers appear in the data include Tempa Tsering, the spiritual leader’s long-time envoy to Delhi, and the senior aides Tenzin Taklha and Chhimey Rigzen, as well as Samdhong Rinpoche, the head of the trust that has been tasked with overseeing the selection of the Buddhist leader’s successor.

The Dalai Lama, who has spent the past 18 months isolating in his compound in Dharamsala, is not known to carry a personal phone, according to two sources.

Following the launch of the Pegasus project, India’s IT minister, Ashwini Vaishnaw, said the project’s claims about Indian surveillance were an “attempt to malign Indian democracy and its well-established institutions”. He told parliament: “The presence of a number on the list does not amount to snooping … there is no factual basis to suggest that use of the data somehow amounts to surveillance.”

India could have several motives for possible spying on Tibetan leaders but some in Dharamsala have concluded the question of succession may be a driving force. Naming successors to the Dalai Lama has sometimes taken years after the death of the title holder, and is usually led by the monk’s senior disciples, who interpret signs that lead them to the child next in line.

But China views the next Dalai Lama as a potential separatist leader who could weaken its authoritarian grip on Tibet. It has claimed the sole right to control the selection process, and analysts say it is already pressuring neighbours such as Nepal and Mongolia to rule out recognising any successor but its own.

Beijing is also contacting influential Buddhist teachers and clerics around the world, including some based in India, inviting them to China to try to lay the groundwork for its choice and muddy support for any candidate chosen by the Dalai Lama’s followers.

These entreaties to Buddhist leaders and other interference in the succession process have been viewed warily by India’s security agencies, who may have sought to closely monitor an issue with huge implications for Delhi’s own relationship with China – but where its direct influence and control is limited.

“India wants to make sure that Tibetans don’t strike a deal with the Chinese that involves the Dalai Lama going back to Tibet,” said a former staffer with the Tibetan administration, who asked not to be named.

India may also be seeking to monitor continuing informal contact between Chinese officials and Tibetan leaders. The Dalai Lama revealed two years ago that India had vetoed his plans to try to meet Xi Jinping when the Chinese president visited India in 2014.

“The Dalai Lama himself has said several times that he maintains connections to the Chinese leadership through ‘old friends’,” the former Tibetan government staffer said. “India is very aware of this and they want to make sure that no deals are made without their knowing or involvement.”

The New World Religion

Excerpted from “The Reappearance Of The Christ” by Alice Bailey and Djwhal Khul

————-

The world today is more spiritually inclined than ever before. This is said with a full realisation of the generally accepted idea that the world of men is on the rocks spiritually, and that at no time has the spiritual life of the race been at such a low ebb. This idea is largely due to the fact that humanity is not excessively interested in the orthodox presentation of truth, and that our churches are relatively empty and are under public indictment as having failed to teach humanity to live rightly. These affirmations are distressingly true, but the fact still remains that human beings everywhere are searching for spiritual release and truth, and that the truly religious spirit is more fundamentally alive than at any previous time. This is especially true of those countries which have suffered the most in the late world war (1914-1945). Countries, such as the United States and the neutral countries show, as yet, no sign of any real spiritual revival. The other countries are spiritually alive—not along orthodox lines but in a true search and a vital demand for light.

The religious spirit of humanity is today more definitely focussed upon Reality than has ever before been the case. The orthodox world religions are rapidly falling into the background of men’s minds even whilst we are undoubtedly approaching nearer to the central spiritual Reality. The theologies now taught by the ecclesiastical organisation (both in the East and in the West) are crystallised and of relatively little use. Priests and churchmen, orthodox instructors and fundamentalists (fanatical though sincere) are seeking to perpetuate that which is old and which sufficed in the past to satisfy the enquirer, but which now fails to do so. Sincere but unenlightened religious men are deploring the revolt of youth from doctrinal attitudes. At the same time, along with all seekers, they are demanding a new revelation. They seek something new and arresting by which to attract the masses back to God; they fear that something must be relinquished, that new interpretations of old truths must be found, but fail to realise that a new outlook upon the truth (as it is in Christ) must be attained; they sense the approach of new, impending spiritual revelations but are apt to shrink back from their revolutionary effects. They ask themselves many questions and are assailed by deep and disturbing doubts. It is interesting here to note that the answers to these questions come (and will increasingly come), from two sources: the thinking masses, whose growing intellectual perception is the cause of the revolt from orthodox religion, and from that overshadowing source of truth and light which has unfailingly brought revelation down the ages. The answers will not come, as far as one can see, from any religious organisation, whether Asiatic or Western.

Some of these questions can be expressed as follows:

Why has the church been unable to arrest the overpowering expression of evil, as evidenced in the late world war?

Why has religion proved inadequate to the need of humanity?

Why have the so-called spiritual leaders of the religious world proved themselves incompetent to aid in the solution of the world problems?

Why, as exponents of the God of Love, have Christian teachers been unable to arrest the unparalleled growth of hate in the world today?

Why are the majority of such teachers so sectarian, separative and denominational in their approaches to truth? There is, however, a spiritual, open-minded minority.

Why do the young people refuse to go to church and lack interest to accept the doctrines presented for their belief?

Why is death and not life stalking the world today?

Why do so many new cults arise and sidetrack the people away from orthodox organisations of a religious nature?

Why does Mental Science, the Unity Movement and the New Thought presentation attract people away from the better established organisations? Note the use of the word “organisations”; it holds the key to the problem.

Why is there a growing emphasis upon the Eastern theologies, upon the various yogas, upon Buddhistic teachings and oriental faiths?

Why do such teachings as astrology, numerology and various magical rituals find so many adherents whilst the churches remain empty or are only attended by old people, the conservatives and reactionaries or by those who go there by force of habit, or desperate unhappiness?

What is wrong, finally, with our presentation of the spiritual realities and the truths of the ages?

———–

The question arises whether Christ would be at home in the churches if He walked again among men. The rituals and the ceremonies, the pomp and the vestments, the candles and the gold and silver, the graded order of popes, cardinals, archbishops, canons and ordinary rectors, pastors and clergy would seemingly have small interest for the simple Son of God, Who—when on Earth—had not where to lay His head.

The presentation of religious truth in the past has blocked the growth of the religious spirit; theology has brought mankind to the very gates of despair; the delicate flower of the Christ life has been stunted and arrested in the dark caves of man’s thinking; fanatical adherence to human interpretations has taken the place of Christian living; millions of books have obliterated the living words of Christ; the arguments and discussions of priests have put out the light which the Buddha brought, and the love of God as revealed by the life of Christ has been forgotten whilst men have quarrelled over meanings, over phrases and words. In the meantime, men have agonised, starved, suffered, demanded help and instruction and, unsatisfied, have lost faith.

Today everywhere people are ready for the light; they are expectant of a new revelation and of a new dispensation, and humanity has advanced so far on the way of evolution that these demands and expectations are not couched in terms of material betterment only, but in terms of a spiritual vision, true values and right human relations. They are demanding teaching and spiritual help along with the necessary requests for food, clothes and the opportunity to work and live in freedom; they face famine in large areas of the world and yet are registering (with equal dismay) the famine of the soul.

We are surely not in error if we conclude that this spiritual dismay and this spiritual demand have assumed a paramount place in the consciousness of the Christ. When He reappears and when His Church, hitherto invisible, appears with Him, what can They do to meet this demanding cry and this intensified attitude of spiritual perception with which They will be greeted. They see the picture whole. The cry of the Christian for spiritual help, the cry of the Buddhist for spiritual enlightenment, and the cry of the Hindu for spiritual understanding—along with the cries of all those who have faith or have no faith—must be met. The demands of humanity are rising to Their ears and the Christ and His disciples have no sectarian scruples, of that we may be sure. It is impossible to believe that They are interested in the views of the Fundamentalists or in the theories of the theologians upon the Virgin Birth, the Vicarious Atonement or the Infallibility of the Pope. Humanity is in desperate need and that need must be met; only great and fundamental principles of living, covering the past and the present and providing a platform for the future, will really meet that human invocation. The Christ and the spiritual Hierarchy will not come to destroy all that humanity has hitherto found “necessary to salvation,” and all that has met its spiritual demand. When the Christ reappears, the non-essentials will surely disappear; the fundamentals of faith will remain, upon which He can build that new world religion for which all men wait. That new world religion must be based upon those truths which have stood the test of ages and which have brought assurance and comfort to men everywhere. These surely are:

1. The Fact of God.

First and foremost, there must be recognition of the fact of God. That central Reality can be called by any name that man may choose according to his mental or emotional bent, racial tradition and heritage, for it cannot be defined or conditioned by names. Human beings perforce always use names in order to express that which they sense, feel and know, both of the phenomenal and also of the intangible. Consciously or unconsciously, all men recognise God Transcendent and God Immanent. They sense God to be the Creator and the Inspiration of all that is.

The Eastern faiths have ever emphasised God Immanent, deep within the human heart, “nearer than hands and feet,” the Self, the One, the Atma, smaller than the small, yet all-comprehensive. The Western faiths have presented God Transcendent, outside His universe, an Onlooker. God transcendent, first of all, conditioned men’s concept of Deity, for the action of this transcendent God appeared in the processes of nature; later, in the Jewish dispensation, God appeared as the tribal Jehovah, as the soul (the rather unpleasant soul) of a nation. Next, God was seen as a perfected man, and the divine God-man walked the Earth in the Person of Christ. Today we have a rapidly growing emphasis upon God immanent in every human being and in every created form. Today, we should have the churches presenting a synthesis of these two ideas which have been summed up for us in the statement of Shri Krishna in The Bhagavad Gita: “Having pervaded this whole Universe with a fragment of Myself, I remain.” God, greater than the created whole, yet God present also in the part; God Transcendent guarantees the plan for our world and is the Purpose, conditioning all lives from the minutest atom, up through all the kingdoms of nature, to man.

2. Man’s Relationship to God.

The second truth to which all give allegiance—no matter what the faith—is that of man’s essential relationship to God. Inherent in the human consciousness—inchoate often and undefined—is a sense of divinity. “We are all the children of God” (Gal. III.26); “One is our Father, even God,” says the Christ and so say all the world Teachers and Avatars down the ages. “As He is, so are we in this world” (1 John IV.17) is another Biblical statement. “Closer is He than breathing, nearer than hands and feet,” chants the Hindu. “Christ in us, the hope of glory” is the triumphant affirmation of St. Paul.

3. The Fact of Immortality and of Eternal Persistence.

Third, is the sense of persistence, of eternal life or of immortality. From this recognition, there seems to be no escape; it is as much a part of humanity’s reaction as is the instinct of self-preservation. With that inner conviction, we face death and we know that we shall live again, that we come and we go and that we persist because we are divine and the controllers of our own destiny. We know that we have set ourselves a goal and that the goal is “Life more abundantly”—somewhere, here, there, and eventually everywhere.

The spirit in man is undying; it forever endures, progressing from point to point and stage to stage upon the Path of Evolution, unfolding steadily and sequentially the divine attributes and aspects. This truth involves necessarily the recognition of two great natural laws; the Law of Rebirth and the Law of Cause and Effect. The churches in the West have refused officially to recognise the Law of Rebirth and have thereby wandered into a theological impasse and into a cul-de-sac from which there is no possible exit. The churches in the East have over-emphasised these laws so that a negative, acquiescent attitude to life and its processes, based on continuously renewed opportunity, controls the people. Christianity has emphasised immortality but has made eternal happiness dependent upon the acceptance of a theological dogma: Be a true professing Christian and live in a somewhat fatuous heaven or refuse to be an accepting Christian, or a negative professional Christian, and go to an impossible hell—a hell growing out of the theology of The Old Testament and its presentation of a God, full of hate and jealousy. Both concepts are today repudiated by all sane, sincere, thinking people. No one of any true reasoning power or with any true belief in a God of love accepts the heaven of the churchmen or has any desire to go there. Still less do they accept the “lake that burneth with fire and brimstone” (Rev. XIX.20) or the everlasting torture to which a God of love is supposed to condemn all who do not believe in the theological interpretations of the Middle Ages, of the modern fundamentalists or of the unreasoning churchmen who seek—through doctrine, fear and threat—to keep people in line with the obsolete old teaching. The essential truth lies elsewhere. “Whatsoever a man soweth that shall he also reap” (Gal. VI.7) is a truth which needs re-emphasising. In these words, St. Paul phrases for us the ancient and true teaching of the Law of Cause and Effect, called in the Orient the Law of Karma.

The immortality of the human soul, and the innate ability of the spiritual, inner man to work out his own salvation under the Law of Rebirth, in response to the Law of Cause and Effect, are the underlying factors governing all human conduct and all human aspiration. These two laws no man can evade. They condition him at all times until he has achieved the desired and the designed perfection and can manifest on earth as a rightly functioning son of God.

4. The Continuity of Revelation and the Divine Approaches.

A fourth essential truth and one which clarifies all the planned work of the Christ is tied in with spiritual revelation and the need of man for God and of God for man. Never has Deity left Itself at any time without witness. Never has man demanded light that the light has not been forthcoming. Never has there been a time, cycle or world period when there was not the giving out of the teaching and spiritual help which human need demanded. Never did the hearts and minds of men go out towards God, but that divinity itself came nearer to man. The history of mankind is, in reality, the history of man’s demand for light and for contact with God, and then the giving of light and the approach of God to man. Always the Saviour, the Avatar or the World Teacher issued forth from the secret place of the Most High and brought to man fresh revelation, fresh hope and a fresh incentive towards fuller spiritual living.

Some of these Approaches have been of a major nature, affecting humanity as a whole and some of them are of less importance, affecting only a relatively small part of mankind—a nation or a group. Those Who come as the Revealers of the love of God come from that spiritual centre to which the Christ gave the name “the Kingdom of God” (Matt. VI.33). Here dwell the “spirits of just men made perfect” (Heb. XII.23); here the spiritual Guides of the race are to be found and here the spiritual Executives of God’s plan live and work and oversee human and planetary affairs. It is called by many names by many people. It is spoken of as the Spiritual Hierarchy, as the Abode of Light, as the Centre where the Masters of the Wisdom are to be found, as the Great White Lodge. From it come those who act as Messengers of the Wisdom of God, Custodians of the truth as it is in Christ, and Those Whose task is to save the world, to impart the next revelation, and to demonstrate divinity. All the world Scriptures bear witness to the existence of this centre of spiritual energy. This spiritual Hierarchy has been steadily drawing nearer to humanity as men have become more conscious of divinity and more fitted for contact with the divine.

Another great Approach of divinity and another spiritual revelation are now possible. A new revelation is hovering over mankind and the One Who will bring it and implement it is drawing steadily nearer to us. What this great approach will bring to mankind, we do not yet know. It will surely bring us as definite results as did all the earlier revelations and the missions of Those Who came in response to humanity’s earlier demands. The World War has purified mankind. A new heaven and a new earth are on their way. What does the orthodox theologian and churchman mean when he uses the words “a new heaven”?  May these words not signify something entirely new and a new conception as to the world of spiritual realities?  May not the Coming One bring us a new revelation as to the very nature of God Himself? Do we yet know all that can be known about God? If so, God is very limited. May it not be possible that our present ideas of God, as the Universal Mind, as Love and as Will may be enriched by some new idea or quality for which we have as yet no name or word, and of which we have no slightest understanding. Each of the three present concepts of divinity—of the Trinity—were entirely new when first sequentially presented to the mind or consciousness of man.

For some years now the spiritual Hierarchy of our planet has been drawing nearer to humanity and its approach is responsible for the great concepts of freedom which are so close to the hearts of men everywhere. The dream of brotherhood, of fellowship, of world cooperation and of a peace, based on right human relations, is becoming clearer in our minds. We are also visioning a new and vital world religion, a universal faith which will have its roots in the past, but which will make clear the new dawning beauty and the coming vital revelation.

Of one thing we can be sure, this approach will, in some way—deeply spiritual, yet wholly factual—prove the truth of the immanence of God. The churches have emphasised and exploited the extra-territoriality of Deity and have posited the presence of a God Who is creating, sustaining and creatively active, but at the same time outside His Creation—an inscrutable onlooker. This type of transcendent Creator must be shown to be false and this doctrine must be countered by the manifestation of God in man, the hope of glory. It is this surely that the expected Approach will demonstrate; it will prove also the close relationship between God Transcendent and that in “Him we live and move and have our being,” because, “having pervaded this entire Universe with a fragment of Himself, He remains.” God is immanent in the forms of all created things; the glory which shall be revealed is the expression of that innate divinity in all its attributes and aspects, its qualities and powers, through the medium of humanity.

On the fact of God and of man’s relation to the divine, on the fact of immortality and of the continuity of divine revelation, and upon the fact of the constant emergence of Messengers from the divine centre, the new world religion will be based. To these facts must be added man’s assured, instinctive knowledge of the existence of the Path to God and of his ability to tread it, when the evolutionary process has brought him to the point of a fresh orientation to divinity and to the acceptance of the fact of God Transcendent and of God Immanent within every form of life.

These are the foundational truths upon which the world religion of the future will rest. Its keynote will be Divine Approach. “Draw near to Him and He will draw near to you” (James IV.8) is the great injunction, emanating in new and clear tones from Christ and the spiritual Hierarchy at this time.

The great theme of the new world religion will be the recognition of the many divine approaches and the continuity of revelation which each of them conveyed; the task ahead of the spiritually minded people of the world today is to prepare humanity for the imminent and (perhaps) the greatest of all the Approaches. The method employed will be the scientific and intelligent use of Invocation and Evocation and the recognition of their tremendous potency.

Man invokes divine Approach in various ways: by means of the inchoate, voiceless appeal or invocative cry of the masses and also by the planned, defined invocation of the spiritually oriented aspirants, the intelligently convinced worker, disciple and initiate—by all, in fact, who form the New Group of World Servers.

The science of invocation and evocation will take the place of what we now call “prayer” and “worship.” Be not disturbed by the use of the word “science.” It is not the cold and heartless intellectual thing so oft depicted. It is in reality the intelligent organisation of spiritual energy and of the forces of love, and these, when effective, will evoke the response of spiritual Beings Who can again walk openly among men, and thus establish a close relation and a constant communication between humanity and the spiritual Hierarchy.

In order to clarify, it might be said that Invocation is of three kinds: there is, as stated above, the massed demand, unconsciously voiced, and the crying appeal, wrung from the hearts of men in all times of crisis such as the present. This invocative cry rises ceaselessly from all men living in the midst of disaster; it is addressed to that power outside themselves which they feel can and should come to their help in their moment of extremity. This great and wordless invocation is rising everywhere today. Then there is the invocational spirit, evidenced by sincere men as they participate in the rites of their religion and take advantage of the opportunity of united worship and prayer to lay their demands for help before God. This group, added to the mass of men, creates a huge body of invocative applicants and at this time, their massed intent is in great evidence and their invocation is rising to the Most High. Then, lastly there are the trained disciples and aspirants of the world who use certain forms of words, certain carefully defined invocations and who—as they do this—focus the invocative cry and the invocative appeal of the other two groups, giving it right direction and power. All these three groups are, consciously or unconsciously, swinging into activity at this time and their united effort guarantees a resultant evocation.

This new invocative work will be the keynote of the coming world religion and will fall into two parts. There will be the invocative work of the masses of the people, everywhere, trained by the spiritually minded people of the world (working in the churches whenever possible under an enlightened clergy) to accept the fact of the approaching spiritual energies, focussed through Christ and His spiritual Hierarchy, and trained also to voice their demand for light, liberation and understanding. There will also be the skilled work of invocation as practised by those who have trained their minds through right meditation, who know the potency of formulas, mantrams and invocations and who work consciously. They will increasingly use certain great formulas of words which will later be given to the race, just as the Lord’s Prayer was given by the Christ, and as the New Invocation has been given out for use at this time by the Hierarchy.

This new religious science for which prayer, meditation and ritual have prepared humanity, will train its people to present—at stated periods throughout the year—the voiced demand of the people of the world for relationship with God and for a closer spiritual relation to each other. This work, when rightly carried forward, will evoke response from the waiting Hierarchy and from its Head, the Christ. Through this response, the belief of the masses will gradually be changed into the conviction of the knowers. In this way, the mass of men will be transformed and spiritualised, and the two great divine centres of energy or groups—the Hierarchy and Humanity itself—will begin to work in complete at-one-ment and unity. Then the Kingdom of God will indeed and in truth be functioning on earth.

Buddha Twirls a Flower

When Buddha was in Grdhrakuta mountain he turned a flower in his fingers and held it before his listeners. Every one was silent. Only Maha-Kashapa smiled at this revelation, although he tried to control the lines of his face.

Buddha said: “I have the eye of the true teaching, the heart of Nirvana, the true aspect of non-form, and the ineffable stride of Dharma. It is not expressed by words, but especially transmitted beyond teaching. This teaching I have given to Maha-Kashapa.”

Mumon’s comment: Golden-faced Gautama thought he could cheat anyone. He made the good listeners as bad, and sold dog meat under the sign of mutton. And he himself thought it was wonderful. What if all the audience had laughed together? How could he have transmitted the teaching? And again, if Maha-Kashapa had not smiled, how could he have transmitted the teaching? If he says that realization can be transmitted, he is like the city slicker that cheats the country dub, and if he says it cannot be transmitted, why does he approve of Maha-Kashapa?

At the turning of a flower
His disguise was exposed.
No one in heaven or earth can surpass
Maha-Kashapa’s wrinkled face
.

KING BIMBISARA

SIDDHATTHA had cut his waving hair and had exchanged his royal robe for a mean dress of the color of the ground. Having sent home Channa, the charioteer, together with the noble steed Kanthaka, to King Suddhodana to bear him the message that the prince had left the world, the Bodhisattva walked along on the highroad with a beggar’s bowl in his hand.

Yet the majesty of his mind was ill-concealed under the poverty of his appearance. His erect gait betrayed his royal birth and his eyes beamed with a fervid zeal for truth. The beauty of his youth was transfigured by holiness and surrounded his head like a halo. All the people who saw this unusual sight gazed at him in wonder. Those who were in haste arrested their steps and looked back; and there was no one who did not pay him homage.

Having entered the city of Rajagaha, the prince went from house to house silently waiting till the people offered him food. Wherever the Blessed One came, the people gave him what they had; they bowed before him in humility and were filled with gratitude because he condescended to approach their homes. Old and young people were moved and said: “This is a noble muni! His approach is bliss. What a great joy for us!”

And King Bimbisara, noticing the commotion in the city, inquired the cause of it, and when he learned the news sent one of his attendants to observe the stranger. Having heard that the muni must be a Sakya and of noble family, and that he had retired to the bank of a flowing river in the woods to eat the food in his bowl, the king was moved in his heart; he donned his royal robe, placed his golden crown upon his head and went out in the company of aged and wise counselors to meet his mysterious guest.

The king found the muni of the Sakya race seated under a tree. Contemplating the composure of his face and the gentleness of his deportment, Bimbisara greeted him reverently and said: “O samana, thy hands are fit to grasp the reins of an empire and should not hold a beggar’s bowl. I am sorry to see thee wasting thy youth. Believing that thou art of royal descent, I invite thee to join me in the government of my country and share my royal power. Desire for power is becoming to the noble-minded, and wealth should not be despised. To grow rich and lose religion is not true gain. But he who possesses all three, power, wealth, and religion, enjoying them in discretion and with wisdom, him I call a great master.”

The great Sakyamuni lifted his eyes and replied: “Thou art known, O king, to be liberal and religious, and thy words are prudent. A kind man who makes good use of wealth is rightly said to possess a great treasure; but the miser who hoards up his riches will have no profit. Charity is rich in returns; charity is the greatest wealth, for though it scatters, it brings no repentance.

“I have severed all ties because I seek deliverance. How is it possible for me to return to the world? He who seeks religious truth, which is the highest treasure of all, must leave behind all that can concern him or draw away his attention, and must be bent upon that one goal alone. He must free his soul from covetousness and lust, and also from the desire for power.

“Indulge in lust but a little, and lust like a child will grow. Wield worldly power and you will be burdened with cares. Better than sovereignty over the earth, better than living in heaven, better than lordship over all the worlds, is the fruit of holiness. The Bodhisattva has recognized the illusory nature of wealth and will not take poison as food. Will a fish that has been baited still covet the hook, or an escaped bird love the net? Would a rabbit rescued from the serpent’s mouth go back to be devoured? Would a man who has burnt his hand with a torch take up the torch after he had dropped it to the earth? Would a blind man who has recovered his sight desire to spoil his eyes again?

{Is this referring to Sotāpanna ?}

“The sick man suffering from fever seeks for a cooling medicine. Shall we advise him to drink that which will increase the fever? Shall we quench a fire by heaping fuel upon it?

“I pray thee, pity me not. Rather pity those who are burdened with the cares of royalty and the worry of great riches. They enjoy them in fear and trembling, for they are constantly threatened with a loss of those boons on whose possession their hearts are set, and when they die they cannot take along either their gold or the kingly diadem.

“My heart hankers after no vulgar profit, so I have put away my royal inheritance and prefer to be free from the burdens of life. Therefore, try not to entangle me in new relationships and duties, nor hinder me from completing the work I have begun. I regret to leave thee. But I will go to the sages who can teach me religion and so find the path on which we can escape evil.

“May thy country enjoy peace and prosperity, and may wisdom be shed upon thy rule like the brightness of the noon-day sun. May thy royal power be strong and may righteousness be the scepter in thine hand.”

The king, clasping his hands with reverence, bowed down before Sakyamuni and said: “Mayest thou obtain that which thou seekest, and when thou hast obtained it, come back, I pray thee, and receive me as thy disciple.” The Bodhisattva parted from the king in friendship and goodwill, and purposed in his heart to grant his request.

—-

Excerpted from:

BUDDHA, THE GOSPEL

By Paul Carus

Chicago, The Open Court Publishing Company,

[1894]

At Sacred Texts

Adopter la bodhicitta

Bodhicaryāvatāra — Chapitre 3

Par Śāntideva

Excerpted from Lotsawa House translated by Adam Pearcey and Christian Magis.

————————–

    Je célèbre avec joie tous les actes vertueux

    Qui allègent les peines des royaumes inférieurs,

    Et je me réjouis aussi quand ceux qui souffrent

    Trouvent le bonheur.

***

    Je me réjouis de l’accumulation de vertus

    Qui est la cause de l’Éveil,

    Et de la libération définitive

    Des êtres des peines du samsâra.

***

    L’Éveil des bouddhas m’emplit de joie

    Ainsi que les bhûmi atteints par les bodhisattvas.

***

    L’allégresse me saisit à l’évocation de cet océan de vertus

    Qu’est la noble intention de la bodhicitta,

    Dont le but est d’obtenir le bonheur pour tous les êtres

    Et dont l’activité est, pour tous, bénéfique.

***

    Je joins maintenant les mains et vous prie,

    Bouddhas de toutes les directions,

    De faire briller la lampe du Dharma sur nous

    Qui souffrons dans l’obscurité de la confusion.

***

    Les mains jointes sur le cœur,

    J’enjoins tous les bouddhas aspirant au nirvâna

    De ne pas nous abandonner aveugles et seuls,

    Mais de demeurer parmi nous pour d’innombrables kalpas.

***

    Grâce à toutes les vertus

    Que j’ai ainsi accumulées,

    Puissé-je être pour tous les êtres

    Celui qui calme la douleur.

***

    Puissé-je être médecin et remède,

    Puissé-je être celui qui soigne

    Jusqu’à la guérison complète

    Tous ceux qui souffrent en ce monde.

***

    Faisant tomber en pluis mets et boissons,

    Puissé-je éliminer la faim et la soif,

    Et dans les temps de pénurie et de famine,

    Puissé-je devenir moi-même nourriture et boisson.

***

    Pour tous ceux qui sont pauvres et démunis,

    Puissé-je être un trésor aux ressources inépuisables,

    La source de tout ce dont ils ont besoin,

    À portée de main et toujours accessible.

***

    Mon propre corps et toutes mes possessions,

    Mes mérites passés, présents et futurs,

    Je les dédie en totalité, n’en retenant aucun,

    Pour le bienfait des êtres.

***

    C’est en lâchant prise de tout que j’atteindrai le nirvana,

    Cet état qui transcende la souffrance ;

    Puisque tout doit, un jour, être abandonné,

    Il vaut mieux que, dès maintenant, je le distribue.

***

    J’ai maintenant renoncé à mon corps,

    Et l’ai donné pour le bien de tout ce qui vit.

    Qu’ils le tuent, le battent et le maltraitent,

    Qu’ils en fassent ce que bon leur semble.

***

   Et s’ils le traitent comme leur jouet,

S’ils le tournent en objet de ridicule et de moquerie,

    Puisque je leur en ai fait don,

    Pourquoi en prendrai-je ombrage ?

***

    Qu’ils fassent de moi ce qu’ils veulent :

    Tout, hormis ce qui leur causerait tort.

    Et puisse cela servir d’enseignement

    À quiconque en serait le témoin.

***

    Si, juste en me voyant, d’autres sont inspirés

    De pensées de colère ou de dévotion,

    Puissent ces pensées éternellement

    Servir à combler leurs désirs.

***

    Puissent ceux qui m’insultent ouvertement,

    Ceux qui me nuisent autrement,

    Même ceux qui me rabaissent en secret,

    Trouver le bonheur de l’Éveil.

***

    Puissé-je être le protecteur des abandonnés,

    Le guide de ceux qui cheminent,

    Et pour ceux qui aspirent à l’autre rive,

    Etre une barque, un pont, un gué.

***

    Puissé-je être une île à qui souhaite toucher terre,

    Une lampe à qui cherche la lumière,

    Un lit pour qui désire le repos,

    Un serviteur pour qui vit dans le besoin.

***

    Puissé-je être un joyau qui exauce les souhaits, un vase merveilleux,

    Un puissant mantra ou un remède infaillible ;

    Puissé-je devenir cet arbre miraculeux qui comble les vœux,

    Une vache d’abondance, nourrice du monde.

***

    De même que l’espace,

    La terre et les éléments,

    Puissé-je toujours soutenir la vie

    Des êtres en nombre illimité.

***

    Et tant qu’elles ne seront pas libérées de la souffrance,

    Puissé-je aussi être source de vie

    Pour les créatures innombrables

    Qui peuplent l’espace infini.

***

    Tout comme les sugata des temps passés

    Ont réalisé la bodhicitta

    Et se sont établis progressivement

    Dans l’entraînement d’un bodhisattva,

***

    De même, pour le bien des êtres,

    J’éveillerai la bodhicitta

    Et m’entraînerai moi aussi

    Graduellement dans ces disciplines.

***

    Ainsi, tous ceux dont l’esprit est avisé,

    Et qui ont adopté la bodhicitta avec joie,

    Pourront, afin de la développer davantage,

    En faire l’éloge de la manière qui suit :

***

    Aujourd’hui, ma naissance est devenue fructueuse ;

    J’ai bien obtenu une existence humaine.

    Aujourd’hui, je nais dans la famille du Bouddha,

    Je suis maintenant un fils (une fille) de Bouddha.

***

    Désormais, j’accomplirai

    Les actions dignes de ma famille,

    Je ne ferai pas tache

    Dans cette noble famille sans défauts.

***

    Comme un aveugle

    Qui trouve un joyau dans un tas d’ordures,

    Ainsi s’est levée en moi,

    Par quelque coïncidence heureuse, la bodhicitta.

***

    C’est l’élixir suprême

    Qui abolit la souveraineté de la mort,

    Le trésor inépuisable

    Qui élimine la misère du monde,

***

    Le remède incomparable

    Qui guérit les maladies du monde,

    L’arbre qui abrite tous les êtres

    Las d’errer sur les chemins de l’existence conditionnée,

***

    Le pont universel

    Qui mène à la libération des existences douloureuses,

    La lune de l’esprit qui se lève

    Et apaise la brûlure des passions du monde,

  *** 

Le grand soleil qui finalement dissipe

    Les brumes de l’ignorance du monde,

    Le beurre le plus fin, baratté à partir

    Du lait du Dharma sacré.

***

    Aux êtres qui errent sur les chemins de l’existence

    Et cherchent à en goûter les joies,

    Elle offre le bonheur le plus élevé,

    Satisfaisant ces éternels vagabonds.

***

    Aujourd’hui en présence de tous les protecteurs,

    Je convie tous les êtres à l’état de sugata

    Et, en attendant, au bonheur.

    Que les dieux, les asura et tous les autres se réjouissent !

Some Speculations on the Tulku Phenomenon

Let me stress this from the outset these are speculations.

I’ll start with some comments.

If there was an Atlantean civilization that fled East to Egypt and in search of higher ground, some of them might have carried on going and the obvious place to shelter from deluge is somewhere land locked and at high altitude like Tibet. The rising sea won’t easily get you there! Being at around 4000m on the plateau the altitude is similar to the Jungfrau Joch which would make it a great place to do observational astronomy / astrology. They may indeed hold a repository of age-old documentation. At one stage in history half the male population were in the monasteries. Knowledge and wisdom is / was taken seriously, it is not a frivolous land. The level of ingenuity needed to build some of the structures would have been world leading in its day. If people wish to preserve messages and knowledge in the days before terabyte hard drives, it would be nice if the essence of teaching could be carried forward across the generations. The detail could be written down, but it might need a teacher to bring it to life.  If you observe, for example, Tibetan ritual magic it is of the very highest order. It is concerted, highly organised and rhythmic. Bear in mind there may be a whole lot more of this which nobody else gets to see. For me it is not beyond the bounds of possibility that they have / had developed a skill level unimaginable to me.

In general, a reincarnating lama or Rinpoche is recognised as a young child. Often, they are found by dreams, or by consultation of the oracle. The incarnation is then recognised by one or more high lamas. There can be tests of recognition of the artefacts of a previous lama. I am not aware of any middle-aged git being recognised.

In the system of raja yoga, nirvana means the blowing off of the casual vehicle, which can cause death, or the form may persist until physical plane death sometimes referred to as para nirvana. In the case of a fourth-degree initiate this would mean the dissolution of the mayavirupa shell in which the now liberated buddhic/atmic essence is indwelling. At the destruction of the causal vehicle the being would have no personality, no soul to speak of. There would be nothing of the former being left to recognise. Technically speaking they are no longer human, there is no compulsion to reincarnate because there is no longer any cause.

The status of bodhisattva refers to anyone who has committed to achieve enlightenment. There is no obvious way of determining how far along that journey they are. I am guessing that when  the commitment is fully made it  is referred to as sotāpanna. Having made a heartfelt commitment, the reincarnating jiva enters the stream leading towards Buddhahood. There may be a fair way to go. There are many academic discussions about the degrees. I doubt these discussions are made by buddhas. They are often of an intellectual bent.

At the third initiation the bodhisattva is well on the way and success is ensured. Such a highly evolved being may for the benefit of all sentient beings delay his / her enlightenment so as to return and teach. It is too late to do this once one they have removed the causal vehicle. The initiate of the third degree is still technically human. On a subsequent incarnation they could build a high-quality vehicle in which an echo of the prior personality exists and of course it is imbued by the indwelling causal vehicle. This might make it possible for someone clairvoyantly able to recognise the indwelling reincarnated essence.

Nobody knows with any certainty the level of initiation of the 16 arhats. When the texts says so and so got enlightened does that mean that they got a bit more enlightened or does that mean that the job was finished? In other words, the weight of the causal vehicle was removed so that they are less heavy ergo lighter. If this is the case, then a reincarnating fourth degree initiate is likely not to be recognisable because there is nothing of the old “self” left.

A being might have “qualities” pertaining to some historical figure, be reminiscent of and even express the essence of what the other being was. It does not necessarily mean that it is a reincarnation of the causal vehicle.

Given what I have read I personally believe that it is not impossible that these lamas and monks, who dedicate their whole lives to it, can train themselves to the degree that they can, with prescience, point at their own incarnation.

In Toltec terms the dreamers of mankind are group conscious. It is also possible that a reincarnating jiva can “talk” through the medium of dream to a close colleague and let them know where they can be found upon rebirth.

Someone caught up in the centuries old preservation of the essence of knowledge and as an act of service having tulku rebirths might indeed be acquiring karmic merit whilst putting off his/her own release into Buddhahood. Indeed, this sounds like a very bodhisattva like thing to do.

I’ll speculate further that the beings doing this are high grade disciples and initiates of the first three mundane degrees.

Bakula or Bakkula – Milinda Panha

From:

The Questions of King Milinda

translated by T. W. Rhys Davids

Part II of II

Volume XXXVI of “The Sacred Books of the East”

[1894]

[DILEMMA THE FORTY-THIRD.

BAKKULA’S SUPERIORITY TO THE BUDDHA.]

 ‘Venerable Nâgasena, it was said by the Blessed One:

“A Brahman am I, O brethren, devoted to self-sacrifice 1, pure-handed at every time; this body that I bear with me is my last, I am the supreme Healer and Physician 2.”

‘But on the other hand the Blessed One said:

“The chief, O brethren, among those who are disciples of mine, in the matter of bodily health, is Bakkula .”

‘Now it is well known that diseases arose several times in the body of the Blessed One. So that if, Nâgasena, the Tathâgata was supreme, then the statement he made about Bakkula’s bodily health must be wrong. But if the Elder named Bakkula was really chief among those who were healthy, then that statement which I first quoted must be wrong. This too is a double-edged problem, now put to you, which you have to solve.’

‘Both the quotations you have made, O king, are correct. But what the Blessed One said about Bakkula was said of those disciples who had learnt by heart the sacred words, and studied them, and handed down the tradition, which in reference to the characteristics (each of them in some one point) had in addition to those which were found in him himself . For there were certain of the disciples of the Blessed One, O king, who were “meditators on foot,” spending a whole day and night in walking up and down in meditation. But the Blessed One was in the habit of spending the day and night in meditation, not only walking up and down but also sitting and lying down. So such, O king, of the disciples as were “meditators on foot ” surpassed him in that particular. And there were certain of the disciples of the Blessed One, O king, who were “eaters at one sitting,” who would not, even to save their lives, take more than one meal a day. But the Blessed One was in the habit of taking a second, or even a third. So such, O king, of the disciples as were “eaters at one sitting” surpassed him in that particular. And in a similar way, O king, a number of different things have been told, each one of one or other of the disciples. But the Blessed One, O king, surpassed them all in respect of uprightness, and of power of meditation, and of wisdom, and of emancipation, and of that insight which arises out of the knowledge of emancipation, and in all that lies within the scope of a Buddha. It was with reference to that, O king, that he said: “A Brahman am I, O brethren, devoted to self-sacrifice, pure-handed at every time; this body that I bear with me is my last, I am the supreme Healer and Physician.”

‘Now one man, O king, may be of good birth, and another may be wealthy, and another full of wisdom, and another well educated, and another brave, and another adroit; but a king, surpassing all these, is reckoned supreme. just in that way, O king, is the Blessed One the highest, the most worthy of respect, the best of all beings. And in so far as the venerable Bakkula was healthy in body, that was by reason of an aspiration (he had formed in a previous birth)  For, O king, when Anoma-dassî, the Blessed One, was afflicted with a disease, with wind in his stomach, and again when Vipassî, the Blessed One, and sixty-eight thousand of his disciples, were afflicted with a disease, with greenness of blood , he, being at those times an ascetic, had cured that disease with various medicines, and attained (thereby) to such healthiness of body (in this life) that it was said of him:

“The chief, O brethren, among those who are disciples of mine, in the matter of bodily health, is Bakkula.”

‘But the Blessed One, O king, whether he be suffering, or not suffering from disease; whether he have taken, or not taken, upon himself the observance of special vows ,–there is no being like unto the Blessed One. For this, O king, has been said by the Blessed One, the god of gods, in the most excellent Samyutta Nikâya

“Whatsoever beings, O brethren, there may be whether without feet, or bipeds, or four-footed things, whether with a body, or without a body, whether conscious or unconscious, or neither conscious nor not–the Tathâgata is acknowledged to be the chief of all, the Arahat, the Buddha Supreme.”‘

‘Very good, Nâgasena! That is so, and I accept it as you say .’

____________________________

[Here ends the problem as to the superiority of Bakkula to the Buddha.]

Footnote to fifth chapter

Tina-pupphaka-roga. There is a flower called tina-puppha, and this may be a skin disease named after it. But pupphaka at Gâtaka III, 541, means blood, and the disease may p. 11 be so called because the blood was turned by it to the colour of grass (tina). Hînati-kumburê (who gives these legends of the previous births of Bakkula at much greater length, adding others from the time of the Buddhas Padumuttara and Kassapa, and giving the story also of his present birth) says that the disease arose from contact with wind which had been poisoned through blowing over a Upas tree (p. 296 of the Simhalese version). But he does not explain the name of the disease, which occurs only here.

In his present birth Bakkula is said to have been born at Kosâmbî, in a wealthy family. His mother, understanding that to bathe a new-born child in the Jumna would ensure him a long life, took him down to the river. Whilst he was there being bathed, a huge fish swallowed him. But the fish, caught at Benares, was sold to a wealthy but childless man there, and on being cut open, the babe was found in it unhurt.

The mother hearing the news of this marvel, went in great state and with haste to Benares and claimed the child. Thereupon an interesting lawsuit arose, and the king of Benares, thinking it unjust to deprive the purchaser of a fish of anything inside it, and also unjust to deprive a mother of her child, decided that the child belonged equally to both. So he became the heir of both families, and was therefore called Bak-kula, ‘the two-family-one’ (Bak = Ba = Dvâ). On the real derivation of Bakkula, see Dr. Morris in the ‘Journal of the Pâli Text Society,’ 1886, pp. 94-99. We need not quarrel with a false etymology which shows us so clearly the origin of the legend. Then Bakkula enjoys great prosperity in the orthodox three palaces, and at eighty years of age, being still in vigorous health, enters the Order.

FUNDAMENTAL BUDDHISTIC BELIEFS.

Colonel Henry Steel Olcott [1832-1907] was the first western Buddhist convert, probably since antiquity. He co-founded the Theosophical Society and was its first president. The only contributor to the 19th century southern Buddhist revival who was born a Protestant, Olcott was able to promote Eastern ideas to western society.

The Buddhist Catechism was Olcott’s attempt to elucidate the basic doctrines of Buddhism in an ecumenical way. This book is still in use today in Sri Lanka. Olcott is fondly remembered in Sri Lanka and by Theosophists world-wide.

APPENDIX.

The following text of the Fourteen items of belief which have been accepted as fundamental principles in both the Southern and Northern sections of Buddhism, by authoritative committees to whom they were submitted by me personally, have so much historical importance that they are added to the present Edition of the Buddhist Catechism as an Appendix. It has very recently been reported to me by H. E. Prince Ouchtomsky, the learned Russian Orientalist, that having had the document translated to them, the Chief Lamas of the great Mongolian Buddhist monasteries declared to him that they accept every one of the propositions as drafted, with the one exception that the date of the Buddha is by them believed to have been some thousands of years earlier than the one given by me. This surprising fact had not hitherto come to my knowledge. Can it be that the Mongolian Sangha confuse the real epoch of Sâkya Muni with that of his alleged next predecessor? Be this as it may, it is a most encouraging fact that the whole Buddhistic world may now be said to have united to the extent at least of these Fourteen Propositions.

H. S. O.

_____

FUNDAMENTAL BUDDHISTIC BELIEFS.

I. Buddhists are taught to show the same tolerance, forbearance, and brotherly love to all men, without distinction; and an unswerving kindness. towards the members of the animal kingdom.

II. The universe was evolved, not created; and it functions according to law, not according to the caprice of any God.

III. The truths upon which Buddhism is founded are natural. They have, we believe, been taught in successive kalpas, or world periods, by certain illuminated beings called BUDDHAS, the name BUDDHA meaning “Enlightened.”

IV. The fourth Teacher in the present Kalpa was Sâkya Muni, or Gautama Buddha, who was born in a royal family in India about 2,500 years ago. He is an historical personage and his name was Siddârtha Gautama.

V. Sâkya Muni taught that ignorance produces desire, unsatisfied desire is the cause of rebirth, arid rebirth, the cause of sorrow. To get rid of sorrow, therefore, it is necessary to escape rebirth; to escape rebirth, it is necessary to extinguish desire; and to extinguish desire, it is necessary to destroy ignorance.

VI. Ignorance fosters the belief that rebirth is a necessary thing. When ignorance is destroyed the worthlessness of every such rebirth, considered as an end in itself, is perceived, as well as the paramount need of adopting a course of life by which the necessity for such repeated rebirths can be abolished. Ignorance also begets the illusive and illogical idea that there is only one existence for man, and the other illusion that this one life is followed by states of unchangeable pleasure or torment.

VII. The dispersion of all this ignorance can be attained by the persevering practice of an all-embracing altruism in conduct, development of intelligence, wisdom in thought, and destruction of desire for the lower personal pleasures.

VIII. The desire to live being the cause of rebirth, when that is extinguished rebirths cease and the perfected individual attains by meditation that highest state of peace called Nirvâṇa.

IX. Sâkya Muni taught that ignorance can be dispelled and sorrow removed by the knowledge of the four Noble Truths, viz.:—

1. The miseries of existence;

2. The cause productive of misery, which is the desire ever renewed of satisfying oneself without being able ever to secure that end;

3. The destruction of that desire, or the estranging of oneself from it;

4. The means of obtaining this destruction of desire. The means which he pointed out is called the noble eight-fold Path, viz.; Right Belief; Right Thought; Right Speech; Right Action; Right Means of Livelihood; Right Exertion; Right Remembrance; Right Meditation.

X. Right Meditation leads to spiritual enlightenment, or the development of that Buddha-like faculty which is latent in every man.

XI. The essence of Buddhism, as summed up by the Tathâgata (Buddha) himself, is—

To cease from all sin,

To get virtue,

To purify the heart.

XII. The universe is subject to a natural causation known as “Karma.” The merits and demerits of a being in past existences determine his condition in the present one. Each man, therefore, has prepared the causes of the effects which he now experiences.

XIII. The obstacles to the attainment of good karma may be removed by the observance of the following precepts, which are embraced in the moral code of Buddhism, viz.: (1) Kill not; (2) Steal not; (3) Indulge in no forbidden sexual pleasure; (4) Lie not; (5) Take no intoxicating or stupefying drug or liquor. Five other precepts which need not be here enumerated should be observed by those who would attain, more quickly than the average layman, the release from misery and rebirth.

XIV. Buddhism discourages superstitious credulity. Gautama Buddha taught it to be the duty of a parent to have his child educated in science and literature. He also taught that no one should believe what is spoken by any sage, written in any book, or affirmed by tradition, unless it accord with reason.

Drafted as a common platform upon which all Buddhists can agree.

H. S. OLCOTT, P. T. S.

Respectfully submitted for the approval of the High Priests of the nations which we severally represent, in the Buddhist Conference held at Adyar, Madras, on the 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th of January 1891 (A. B. 2434).

Japan: Kozen Gunaratana, Chiezo Tokuzawa

Burmah: U. Hmoay Tha Aung

Ceylon: Dhammapala Hevavitarana

The Maghs of Chittagong: Krishna Chandra Chowdry, by his appointed Proxy, Maung Tha Dwe.

BURMAH.

Approved on behalf of the Buddhists of Burmah, this 3rd clay of February, 1891 (A. B. 2434):

Tha-tha-na-baing Saydawgyi; Aung Myi Shwebôn Sayadaw; Me-ga-waddy Sayadaw; Hmat-Khaya Sayadaw; Hti-lîn Sayadaw; Myadaung Sayadaw; Hla-Htwe Sayadaw; and sixteen others.

CEYLON.

Approved on behalf of the Buddhists of Ceylon this 25th day of February, 1891 (A. B. 2434); Mahanuwara upawsatha puspârâma vihârâdhipati Hippola Dhamma Rakkhita Sobhitâbhidhâna Mahâ Nâyaka Sthavirayan wahanse wamha.

(Hippola Dhamma Rakkhita Sabhitâbhidhàna, High Priest of the Malwalta Vihare at Kandy).

(Signed) Hippola.

Mahanuwara Asgiri vihârâdhipati Yatawattê Chandajottyâbhidhana Mahâ Nâyaka Sthavirayan wahanse wamha—(Yatawattê Chandajottyâbhidhana, High Priest of Asgiri Vihare at Kandy).

(Signed) Yatawatte.

Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Stipâdasthâne saha Kolamba palate pradhana Náyaka Sthavirayo (Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala, High Priest of Adam’s Peak and the District of Colombo).

(Signed) H. Sumangala.

Maligawe Prâchina Pustakâlâyadhyakshaka Suriyagoda Sonuttara Sthavirayo (Suriyagoda Sonuttara, Librarian of the Oriental Library at the Temple of the Tooth Relic at Kandy).

(Signed) S. Sonuttara.

Sugata Sâsanadhaja Vinayâ chariya Dhammalankârâbhidhâna Nayaka Sthavira.

(Signed) Dhammalankara,

Pawara neruttika chariya Mahâ Vibhavi Subhuti of Waskaduwa.

(Signed) W. Subhuti.

JAPAN.

Accepted as included within the body of Northern Buddhism.

Shaku Genyu(Shingon Shu)
Fukuda Nichiyo(Nichiren „ )
Sanada Seyko(Zen „ )
Ito Quan Shyu( „ „ )
Takehana Hakuyo(Jodo „ )
Kono Rioshin(Ji-Shu „ )
Kira Ki-ko(Jodo Seizan „ )
Harutani Shinsho(Tendai „ )
Manabe Shun-myo(Shingon „ )

CHITTAGONG.

Accepted for the Buddhists of Chittagong.

Nagawa Parvata Vihârâdhipati

Guna Megu Wini-Lankara,

Harbing, Chittagong, Bengal.

The Science and Buddhism Thread

For some reason I have been getting images of Richard Gere again today… I did a quick search and his birthday 31/8 is very close to mine 30/8. I was born at two minutes to midnight. So, if the clock was wrong…

I have been trying to figure out some way in which I can be useful.

There have been several high-profile discussions between leading Buddhists and scientists.

I dipped back into by Malvern-Dilgo Rinpoche dream.

I did a search for scientists who are Buddhists. I did not find many Physical Chemists. I did find a lot of psychologists, neuroscientists, medics, philosophers, and other people associated with caring for soft wet matter.

I guess many “hardcore” natural scientists are busy doing their research and have not meditated as much as me. It might be a tad controversial even to chat with some Buddhist about the philosophy of consciousness.

If I had my entrepreneur head on, I would say that there is a gap in the market, a niche.

I reckon I might be able to communicate cross species so to speak…

Hmnn, food for thought…