WHEN Devadatta, the son of Suprabuddha and a brother of Yasodhara, became a disciple, he cherished the hope of attaining the same distinctions and honors as Gotama Siddhattha. Being disappointed in his ambitions, he conceived in his heart a jealous hatred, and, attempting to excel the Perfect One in virtue, he found fault with his regulations and reproved them as too lenient.
Devadatta went to Rajagaha and gained the ear of Ajatasattu, the son of King Bimbisara. And Ajatasattu built a new vihara for Devadatta, and founded a sect whose disciples were pledged to severe rules and self-mortification.
Soon afterwards the Blessed One himself came to Rajagaha and stayed at the Veluvana vihara. Devadatta called on the Blessed One, requesting him to sanction his rules of greater stringency, by which a greater holiness might be procured. “The body,” he said, consists of its thirty-two parts and has no divine attributes. It is conceived in sin and born in corruption. Its attributes are liability to pain and dissolution, for it is impermanent. It is the receptacle of karma which is the curse of our former existences; it is the dwelling place of sin and diseases and its organs constantly discharge disgusting secretions. Its end is death and its goal the charnel house. Such being the condition of the body it behooves us to treat it as a carcass full of abomination and to clothe it in such rags only as have been gathered in cemeteries or upon dung-hills.”
The Blessed One said: “Truly, the body is full of impurity and its end is the charnel house, for it is impermanent and destined to be dissolved into its elements. But being the receptacle of karma, it lies in our power to make it a vessel of truth and not of evil. It is not good to indulge in the pleasures of the body, but neither is it good to neglect our bodily needs and to heap filth upon impurities. The lamp that is not cleansed and not filled with oil will be extinguished, and a body that is unkempt, unwashed, and weakened by penance will not be a fit receptacle for the light of truth. Attend to your body and its needs as you would treat a wound which you care for without loving it. Severe rules will not lead the disciples on the middle path which I have taught. Certainly, no one can be prevented from keeping more stringent rules, if he sees fit to do so but they should not be imposed upon any one, for they are unnecessary.”
Thus the Tathagata refused Devadatta’s proposal; and Devadatta left the Buddha and went into the vihara speaking evil of the Lord’s path of salvation as too lenient and altogether insufficient. When the Blessed One heard of Devadatta’s intrigues, he said: “Among men there is no one who is not blamed. People blame him who sits silent and him who speaks, they also blame the man who preaches the middle path.”
Devadatta instigated Ajatasattu to plot against his father Bimbisara, the king, so that the prince would no longer be subject to him. Bimbisara was imprisoned by his son in a tower, where he died, leaving the kingdom of Magadha to his son Ajatasattu.
The new king listened to the evil advice of Devadatta, and he gave orders to take the life of the Tathagata. However, the murderers sent out to kill the Lord could not perform their wicked deed, and became converted as soon as they saw him and listened to his preaching. The rock hurled down from a precipice upon the great Master split in twain, and the two pieces passed by on either side without doing any harm. Nalagiri, the wild elephant let loose to destroy the Lord, became gentle in his presence; and Ajatasattu, suffering greatly from the pangs of his conscience, went to the Blessed One and sought peace in his distress.
The Blessed One received Ajatasattu kindly and taught him the way of salvation; but Devadatta still tried to become the founder of a religious school of his own. Devadatta did not succeed in his plans and having been abandoned by many of his disciples, he fell sick, and then repented. He entreated those who had remained with him to carry his litter to the Buddha, saying: “Take me, children, take me to him; though I have done evil to him, I am his brother-in-law. For the sake of our relationship the Buddha will save me.” And they obeyed, although reluctantly.
And Devadatta in his impatience to see the Blessed One rose from his litter while his carriers were washing their hands. But his feet burned under him; he sank to the ground; and, having chanted a hymn on the Buddha, died.
1 : a system of rules that explain the correct conduct and procedures to be followed in formal situations The soldier’s actions constitute a breach of military protocol. They did not follow the proper diplomatic protocols. What is the proper protocol for declining a job offer?
2 : a plan for a scientific experiment or for medical treatment an experimental protocol a simplified treatment protocol
3 formal : a document that describes the details of a treaty or formal agreement between countries the Geneva Protocol of 1925
Full Definition of protocol
1 : an original draft, minute, or record of a document or transaction
2a : a preliminary memorandum often formulated and signed by diplomatic negotiators as a basis for a final convention or treaty
b : the records or minutes of a diplomatic conference or congress that show officially the agreements arrived at by the negotiators
3a : a code prescribing strict adherence to correct etiquette and precedence (as in diplomatic exchange and in the military services) a breach of protocol
b : a set of conventions governing the treatment and especially the formatting of data in an electronic communications system network protocols
c : convention sense 3a,b
4 : a detailed plan of a scientific or medical experiment, treatment, or procedure
From Cambridge Dictionary
the system of rules and acceptable behaviour used at official ceremonies and occasions:
a breach of Royal protocol
From Urban Dictionary
More lame-ass consultant speak, meaning the process or procedure for performing an activity.
“Julie, what’s the protocol for gathering the user requirements?”
an accepted or established code of conduct or behavior couples may engage in during an argument or disagreement.
Jamar and I got into again last night before things got heat we set up a fight protocol.
The act of cutting the fishing line rather than having to deal with the physical handling of a catfish.
When it seemed clear that it was a catfish on the line, Scotty did the right thing by following the “Catfish Protocol” and cutting the line.
Used to describe when a server destroys all non-essential data in order to prevent an intruder from accessing information deemed volatile to its users (credit card numbers, social security numbers, passwords). Emails generally aren’t on the list because a server would need a way to re-establish communication with the end-user.
Origin: South Park, when Skankhunt42 destroys all evidence of his trolling
We are going protocol zero. This is not a drill.
The unwritten, unmentioned male code of conduct strictly governing behaviour in a public restroom.
Urinal protocol dicktates (pardon the pun) that every male must make due effort to accommodate a buffer urinal if possible. In situations when a buffer urinal is not possible, the pissor must engage in mindless, inane, random conversation with his fellow piss-ees- a phenomenon known as urinal talk. The highest rule of urinal protocol governs eye contact. Eyes must remain straight ahead in a zombie-like stare, and finish with only a brief glance downward (at your putz) during the final shake. While a brief glance at the face of a fellow piss-ee is an acceptable part of urinal talk, a 30 second jaw-agape stare at his dong is un-cool. Similarly, while placing a hand on the wall above the urinal to steady one’s self is acceptable (especially when drunk), placing one’s hand on another’s sholder is not too cool. Urinal talk must never lead to the pissor urinating on the shoes of the piss-ee.
Urinal protocol evolved as a means to deal with urinal anxiety (also referred to as being pee shy) and it’s corresponding eccentric behaviour. Restroom owners may erect (pardon the pun) a shame shield as a method of dealing with urinal anxiety and encourage compliance with the time-tested “urinal protocol”.
Damn, Frank is such an idiot. He was standing at the trough staring at the black guy’s dick.
You’re twistin’ my melon man, you know you talk so hip man You’re twistin’ my melon man, call the cops
Hey rainmaker, come away from that man You know he’s gonna take away your promised land Hey good lady he just wants what you got you know He’ll never stop until he’s taken the lot (Hey hey hey he hey hey)
Gonna stamp out your fire, he can change your desire Don’t you know he can make you forget you’re a man Gonna stamp out your fire, he can change your desire Don’t you know he can make you forget you’re a man You’re a man
Hey rainmaker he got golden plans I tell you He’ll make a stranger in your own land Hey good lady he’s got God on his side he got a double Tongue you never think he would lie
Gonna stamp out your fire, he can change your desire Don’t you know he can make you forget you’re a man Gonna stamp out your fire, he can change your desire Don’t you know he can make you forget you’re a man You’re a manHe’s gonna step on you again, he’s gonna step on you He’s gonna step on you again, he’s gonna step on you
Hey rainmaker, come away from that man You know he’s gonna take away your promised land Hey good lady he’s got God on his side he got a double Tongue you never think he would lie
Sup up your beer and collect your fags There’s a row going on down near slough Get out your mat and pray to the west I’ll get out mine and pray for myself Thought you were smart when you took them on But you didn’t take a peep in their artillery room All that rugby puts hairs on your chest What chance have you got against a tie and a crest?
Hello-hooray, what a nice day, for the Eton rifles, Eton rifles Hello-hooray, I hope rain stops play, with the Eton rifles, Eton rifles
Thought you were clever when you lit the fuse Tore down the house of commons in your brand new shoes Compose a revolutionary symphony Then went to bed with a charming young thing
The Dragon who hideth within the lowest of the Sacred Three ariseth in His might. In His mouth He holdeth the balances, and in the balances He weigheth the sons of men who – upon the field of battle – are impaled upon His spear.
In the great balance upon which His eyes are fixed, one scale is veiled in fire of vivid green; the other hides itself behind a screen of red.
Those sons of men whose note responds not to the note of red enter the scale upon the right hand side. From thence they pass upon a path which dimly can be seen behind the dragon’s form.
This path is entered by a fourfold door. The sacred phrases of the Sons of Light define it thus: “The portal of the luminous light, which leadeth from the green into the heart of indigo, by that rare fire and richly colored blaze for which no name on earth hath yet been found.” Its tone is hidden.
The sons of men (and few their number is) enter that door of luminous fire when they surmount the crest of gold which riseth on the dragon’s head above the point where gleams “the eye of fire.”
This eye of fire transmits a strong vibration from the triple Lhas unto a center in the Adept’s head. This, when aroused, reveals the Life that is, the form that shall be, and the work united of the two and four.
These two are drawn together. Their essence blends. The man who seeks this path is then impaled upon the spear and thrust within the fiery light which veils the balance. The mystic process then proceeds and… Thus is the work of SATURN seen, and thus the consummation is effected.
Through SATURN’S fateful force the victor then is swiftly projected to the summit of the crest, and thence to that vibrating disk which guards the fourfold door of luminosity.
Three Words are then committed to the Liberated One. He stands triumphant on the speeding disk and when their utterance has… the door is seen ajar, and from its other side a voice is heard to say: “Son of Compassion, Master of Love and Life, the wheel turns all the time for those who battle on the fiery ground beneath the dragon’s feet.”
The first Word having entered on its mission, the victor lifts His head and seeks to utter forth the second Word. But, as He sounds it forth, He arrests its wide vibration, drawing again its power within His heart.
The motion of the disk slows down. The portal of the fiery light opens more widely yet. A form is seen. Unto the Master of the Fiery Heart, this form presents three precious jewels. Their names are hidden from those sons of men who have not yet attained the dragon’s crest.
These jewels three give to the Master of the Fiery Heart a portion of the triple force which circulates within the planet’s sphere.
With eye intent and heart alive with burning love the Master utters not the final Word. He steps from off the disk and turns His Lotus Feet back to that Path He earlier left behind, and from the other side remounts the Dragon’s crest. Himself a dragon, He now identifies Himself with those who seek the beast. And thus He serves, turning His back upon the door of light. He is the offspring of the dragon and serves His time…
Unknown and unseen by Him, a greater disk becomes apparent, turning unceasingly. He seeth not its movement for His eyes are on the world He has returned to serve. The disk revolves and brings around – before His yet unseeing eye – a greater wider Door… His eye of vision opens… He treads the first great path, yet knows it not.
The note that sounds forth from that first great WAY is yet unheard by Him. Its sound is lost in the uprising cry of the children of the lesser dragon.
NOTE: These seven stanzas form only one true stanza out of the oldest book in the world, and one which the eye of the average man has never contacted. Only the sense is here given and not a literal translation, and certain phrases are eliminated in all of them for one or other of the three following reasons: Either the manuscript from which these extracts are taken lacks certain of the words or symbols which are missing on account of the extreme age of the material upon which the text is indited, or their insertion would convey too much knowledge to the man whose perception is sufficiently awakened. Thirdly, the insertion of the omitted words would only serve to awaken confusion and even ridicule on account of the impossibility of translating them correctly; they concern realizations far in advance of the comprehension of man at this time
(From Archaic Formulas. No. 49)
PATH II. The Path of Magnetic Work.
The cosmic Burning-ground of living fire lieth in the nethermost part of the western heavens. Its smoke riseth unto that high place where dwell the Sacred Lhas to Whom the triple Unity within our solar space tender Their offerings and Their fealty. Its scent of spices sweet and faint aroma of incandescent… reach to the utmost confines of the starry vault.
The Two arise and pass the essential Flame through Their burning-ground, blending Their lesser smoke with the greater.
This smoke formeth a Path which reacheth forth unto those spheres within the radiant form of that Attractive Life, to Whom the sons of being and of men in all their many grades offer their prayers, their life and adoration.
The Master on this sphere, which is known as the fourth and is not holy, seeth the fiery WAY; He respondeth to its heat and seeks to warm Himself within its waves of radiant fire electric.
A center at the midway point within the great Kumaric Body formeth the pyre. It pulsates and it glows. It becomes a sea of living fire and draws within itself its own. The smoke which issues from this fiery wheel formeth a living WAY, veiling the steps ahead.
The Master – with the midway wheel on fire – enters within the smoke, and enters blind. He sees no step ahead. He hears no voice. He feels no guiding hand. Only the fifth and latest known aids Him to forward grope, and pass straight onward through the veiling clouds; only the awakening of His wheel may indicate His progress through the new magnetic field.
Only the sons of… (GEMINI) know the way in; only the sons with blazing fire, issuing from the midway point, may enter in. They throw their beams ahead to illuminate the WAY. The Adept of the funeral pyre, the Master of the blazing sphere consumes Himself. Offering Himself the One that is, the new-made threefold Word, the sacred OM, the fire of God, He treads the burning-ground, and blazes forth to those who watch as a radiant flaming sun.
He… and draws the people onward to their goal, warming their hearts, producing dual fire, and leading all towards the portal of the sun and thence to… (GEMINI).
The mystic Word is veiled by letters four – E, M, and A and O -. In the significance of their numbers and the utilization of their colors is the smoke dissipated.
(From Archaic Formulas. No. 49)
PATH III. Training for Planetary Logoi.
The eye of Shiva opens wide and those within its range of vision awaken to another form of sleep. They sleep, but yet they see and hear; their eyes are closed, yet naught that passes in the greater cosmic Seven is missed by them. They see, and yet they vision not; they hear and yet their ears are deaf.
Three times the eye of Shiva closes and three times it opens wide. Thus three great groups of Lotus Lords are impelled upon Their way.
One group is called the “Lotus Lords of deep unseeing sleep.” They dream, and as Their dreams take form, the worlds speed on. The great and cruel maya of the planes of sweet illusion comes into being, draws into its snare the points of unconnected light, and dims their lustre.
Thus is the work pursued…
The eye through which these Lotus Lords contact the planes of cosmic vision is inward turned. They see not that which is upon the outer rim.
The second group has for its name “the Lords of the Inner Lotus.” These are They who sleep, yet not so deep. They wake enough to guard Themselves from straying o’er the secret ring-pass-not which rims the great Illusion. They straitly stand, and, through Their very steadfastness, the forms are held together.
The eye through which these Lotus Lords look out upon the great Illusion is upward turned. They see but that which lieth just above Them; they onward look to that vast mountain top which pierceth through the circumscribing wheel. This mountain top shineth with radiant light, reflected from the face of Him Whom the Lords of worlds within our solar sphere have never seen.
* * *
The third group is the strange mysterious triple group whose name must not be heard as yet within those planetary spheres whose color blends not with the blue in just proportion.
The eye through which these Lotus Lords gaze out upon the cosmic Path is outward turned. Its hue is indigo. The eye through which the middle group of Lotus Lords look up is turquoise blue, whilst the Lords of deep unmoving slumber gaze in through sapphire blue. Thus is the WAY of triple blue formed into one.
This latter aspect of the eye of Shiva directs the other two, and gathers all its energy from a far distant cosmic sphere. The two respond, and in the treading of the Cosmic WAY weave triple force into that path which meets the need of those who later seek to tread it.
They see; They hear; They dream, and dreaming build; Their eyes are blind; Their ears are deaf, and yet They are not dumb. They sound the several cosmic Words, and weave the seven with the twelve and multiply the five.
* * *
Thus are the planets built; thus guided, ruled and known.
(From Archive 49)
PATH IV. The Path to Sirius.
The mysterious Lhas of the sacred hidden fire withdraw Their thought, emerge from meditation, and all that is – between the first and third – is lost to sight. Naught is. Sound dies away. The Words are lost, for there is none to hear. The colors fade, and every point grows dim.
The ocean passes into quietude. The Mother slumbers and forgets her Son. The Father too retreats within the unknown place where fire lies hidden.
The serpent stretches forth inert. Its coils smother the lower fire and choke the sparks… Silence reigns. The absent Lhas forget the worlds and play at other games… All passes into nothingness. Yet still the Lhas themselves remain.
* * *
The mysterious Lhas of the fivefold force unite Their thought, sink into meditation deep and link the first and third. The worlds emerge, and – rushing into forms prepared – pursue their cycles.
* * *
The twelve-pointed play Their part and are the result of the communion of the One above the Sun with one of the seven wives.
* * *
The Master of the Sacred Heart is He who builds a Path between the sphere whereon His lot is cast and the great manasic orb. He builds it knowingly, calling in the aid of points of blue. These emerge from the heart of one of the seven. (The PLEIADES.)
These He bloweth upon and they find their place as stones in the one Way He constructeth for the treading of the many as they wend their way through mind to mind and thence to understanding. (Manas to mahat and thence to buddhi.)
(From Archive 49)
PATH V. The Ray Path.
The Adjuster holds the balances, and the scales are duly set. The energies converge, and shake them out of equilibrium. They descend sometimes upon the right hand side and sometimes upon the left.
The Energies are five in number and their major hue is gold.
* * *
Three great Words are spoken by the Adjuster, and each Word is heard by those whose ears have been deaf for seven cycles and whose lips have been sealed for nigh upon fourteen rounded terms.
The first Word contains the value numerical of the synthetic indigo. It reverberates forth. The scales descend. He who hath ears to hear it, mounteth the scales and addeth to that Word another sound. None have heard it save he who hath stood before the Prince of Doom, and hath seen darkness descend upon the fivefold sons of flesh.
This dual Word buildeth a wall which surroundeth the Son of Man whose lips are dumb. It holdeth Him secure until the Word is spoken which will unseal the fount of speech.
This silence lasteth for seven times forty-nine years and each year for a day.
When the Silent One within the wall seeth the Ray approach, when He changeth the key of the earlier spoken Word, the disruption of the wall is seen and a door openeth before Him.
* * *
The second Word holds hid the number of the sacred blue. As it reverberates, the scales ascend, and the man who seeketh to mount within them seeth the moment pass and knoweth not what to do.
He struggleth for speech and raiseth His right hand in supplication to the great Adjuster. From the sacred halls of the City of the White Island there issueth a messenger who speaketh to Him the following mystic words:
“As the power enters by that which is uppermost, and as it issues from the lotus within the head of Him who hath held His peace, utter this WORD… and look within.”
He who hath held His speech breaks then the silence. He utters the four deep sounds which cause the scale again to drop within His reach. Another door is seen; it opens wide and thus the WAY is trodden.
* * *
The third Word holds securely sealed the key to the outer blue. It contains the order for inversion, and only those can hear that Word whose ears have been closed for eleven aeons. It is never heard within the realms of pain. Few therefore hear it, and those few elude the scales, escape the fiery eye of the great Adjuster and in Their very blindness find the Path which lieth upon the further side of the scales.
* * *
These Words of high direction issue from that which lieth upon the… of the directing Life which holdeth our Lord of Life upon His Path.
(From Archive 49)
PATH VI. The Path of the Solar Logos.
The major Third carrieth within it the vibration of that which hath already been. The cosmic Lord from out the greater seven (Whose sacred Name is hid) seeketh the center of His life from out the sacred seven. This is the mystery hid, the inner secret found in the heart of cosmic space within the groups divine.
The sacred seven with the greater seven approach their primary, the One Who standeth above, and in their cyclic outer sweep will some day touch. The two become the One and are lost in their primary.
Seek ye the same on lesser scale within the inner round and on the plane of density see the lesser primary manifest. The law holds good; the mystery dissolves in TIME.
The major Third in both the lesser and the greater, the cosmic Lord – with His dim reflection solar – completes His cycle, meets His brother, becomes the Son, contacts the Mother, and is Himself the Father. All is One, and naught divides save in transition and through the agency of time.
* * *
The major fifth within the Eternal Now carrieth with it the vibration of that which is. It marks the point of cosmic knowledge that extendeth far ahead into the lengthening present. The cosmic Lord, Whose sacred Name holdeth for us the wisdom of the spheres, seeketh a form wherein to veil the Essence, and through the progress of the aeons to perfect the great triplicity.
Hid is the mystery, and veiled by that which is. Deep is the essence, and sheathed by that which moves. Profound the darkness, lost in the heart of being; dense are the forms, which hide the inner light; gross is the sheath that acteth as a barrier, and crude the material veiling the latent life.
The major fifth includes the minor third; the double major marks the point attained. When the major third is synchronized to the greater fifth and the cosmic note – apportioned to the Lord of Cosmic Love Whose essence is the fire – the sacred Name is heard.
The cosmic Second approaches to the denser and the greater. He merges and He blends, and all is lost in dissonance adjusted. The spheres respond; the Now becomes the past and blends within the time to be. The essence and the life, the point within the circle, and the eternal ring-pass-not becomes as one, and all is peace for aeons. Time ends; space disperses; naught is. Darkness reigns and silence on the waters. The central calm persists.
* * *
The completed chord, the third, the fifth and seventh within the Eternal Now, carrieth with it the vibration of that which is to be. Cometh the Day Be With Us on the greater cosmic plane. Then life and love and power shew forth as one.
The cosmic Lord, Whose sacred Name as yet is hid e’en from the highest Chohan, holdeth within Himself the source of cosmic action, and the gain of cosmic love. The triple All enters – from out of time and space – into the center of pralayic peace.
All is, yet all is not. The wheels turn not. The fires burn not. The veils of color dissipate. The Three retire within the point of peace. The triple ring-pass-not acteth no longer as a barrier.
(From Archive 63)
PATH VII. The Path of Absolute Sonship.
That which hath no beginning and no end; That which is seen and yet remains unknown; That which we touch and yet find unattained, That is the One Who passeth on His WAY.
That which we call the Father and the Son; That which we deem too high for words to grasp; That which the Mother deems her Lord and God, That is the One Who mounts the cosmic stair.
That which is seen when each point of heavenly light sends out its beam upon the midnight blue; That which we hear in every cosmic note and sense beneath the sound of every form, That is the One Who chants the heavenly lay and lends His light to swell the cosmic fire.
That which is known by every Son of God, who masters step by step the Path of Gold; That which is heard by every deva lord who hears the Word go forth as the aeons pass away; That which sounds forth the triple cyclic AUM, reserving yet another sound for higher cosmic planes, That is the One unknown, the Unrevealed, the One Who chants a note within a cosmic chord.
That which in every aeon cometh forth and passeth through His cycle upon a cosmic Path; That which in greater kalpas will play a godlike game; That which in all the cosmic spheres is called “the One above the Son of violet hue,” That is the One Who shineth in the galaxy of stars.
Such is the One to Whom the sons of glory give everlasting homage as He passes on His WAY. To Him be glory as the Mother, Father, Son, as the One Who hath existed in the past, the now and That which is to come.
The morning stars sang in their courses.
The great paean of creation echoeth yet, and arouseth the vibration.
There comes cessation of the song when perfection is achieved.
When all are blended into one full chord, the work is done.
Dissonance in space soundeth yet. Discord ariseth in many systems. When all is resolved into harmony, when all is blended into symphony, the grand chorale will reverberate to the uttermost bounds of the known universe.
Then will occur that which is beyond the comprehension of the highest Chohan – the marriage song of the Heavenly Man.
Thalidomide is racemic; while R-thalidomide is the bioactive form of the molecule, the individual enantiomers can racemize to each other due to the acidic hydrogen at the chiral centre, which is the carbon of the glutarimide ring bonded to the phthalimide substituent. The racemization process can occur in vivo.
Celgene Corporation originally synthesized thalidomide using a three-step sequence starting with L-glutamic acid treatment, but this has since been reformed by the use of L-glutamine. As shown in the image below, N-carbethoxyphthalimide (1) can react with L-glutamine to yield N-phthaloyl-L-glutamine (2). Cyclization of N-phthaloyl-L-glutamine occurs using carbonyldiimidazole, which then yields thalidomide (3). Celgene Corporation’s original method resulted in a 31% yield of S-thalidomide, whereas the two-step synthesis yields 85–93% product that is 99% pure.
In 1952, thalidomide was synthesised by Chemical Industry Basel (CIBA), but was found “to have no effect on animals and was discarded” on that basis. In 1957, it was acquired by Chemie-Grunenthal in Germany. The German company had been established as a soap maker after World War II ended, to address the urgent market need for antibiotics. Heinrich Mückter was appointed to head the discovery program based on his experience working with the German army’s antiviral research. While preparing reagents for the work, Mueckter’s assistant Wilhelm Kunz isolated a by-product that was recognized by pharmacologist Herbert Keller as an analog of glutethimide, a sedative. The medicinal chemistry work turned to improving the lead compound into a suitable drug: the result was thalidomide. The toxicity was examined in several animals, and the drug was introduced in 1956 as a sedative, but it was never tested on pregnant women.
Researchers at Chemie Grünenthal found that thalidomide was a particularly effective antiemetic that had an inhibitory effect on morning sickness. On October 1, 1957, the company launched thalidomide and began marketing it under the trade name Contergan. It was proclaimed a “wonder drug” for insomnia, coughs, colds and headaches.
During that period, the use of medications during pregnancy was not strictly controlled, and drugs were not thoroughly tested for potential harm to the fetus. Thousands of pregnant women took the drug to relieve their symptoms. At the time of the drug’s development, scientists did not believe any drug taken by a pregnant woman could pass across the placental barrier and harm the developing fetus. There soon appeared reports of abnormalities in children being born to mothers using thalidomide. In late 1959, it was noticed that peripheral neuritis developed in patients who took the drug over a period of time, and it was only after this point that thalidomide ceased to be provided over the counter.
While initially considered safe, the drug was responsible for teratogenic deformities in children born after their mothers used it during pregnancies, prior to the third trimester. In November 1961, thalidomide was taken off the market due to massive pressure from the press and public. Experts estimate that thalidomide led to the death of approximately 2,000 children and serious birth defects in more than 10,000 children, about 5,000 of them in West Germany. The regulatory authorities in East Germany did not approve thalidomide. One reason for the initially unobserved side effects of the drug and the subsequent approval in West Germany was that at that time drugs did not have to be tested for teratogenic effects. They were tested on rodents only, as was usual at the time.
In the UK, the British pharmaceutical company The Distillers Company (Biochemicals) Ltd, a subsidiary of Distillers Co. Ltd (now part of Diageo plc), marketed thalidomide throughout the UK, Australia and New Zealand, under the brand name Distaval, as a remedy for morning sickness. Their advertisement claimed that “Distaval can be given with complete safety to pregnant women and nursing mothers without adverse effect on mother or child … Outstandingly safe Distaval has been prescribed for nearly three years in this country.” Globally, more pharmaceutical companies started to produce and market the drug under license from Chemie Grünenthal. By the mid-1950s, 14 pharmaceutical companies were marketing thalidomide in 46 countries under at least 37 different trade names.
In the US, representatives from Chemie Grünenthal approached Smith, Kline & French (SKF), now GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), with a request to market and distribute the drug in North America. A memorandum, rediscovered in 2010 in the archives of the FDA, shows that in 1956–57, as part of its in-licensing approach, Smith, Kline and French conducted animal tests and ran a clinical trial of the drug in the US involving 875 people, including pregnant women. In 1956, researchers involved in clinical trials at SKF noted that, even when used in very high doses, thalidomide could not induce sleep in mice. And when administered at doses 50 to 650 times larger than that claimed by Chemie Grünenthal to be “sleep inducing”, the researchers could still not achieve the hypnotic effect in animals that it had on humans. After completion of the trial, and based on reasons kept hidden for decades, SKF declined to commercialize the drug. In 1958, Chemie Grünenthal reached an agreement with William S Merrell Company in Cincinnati, Ohio (later Richardson-Merrell, now part of Sanofi), to market and distribute thalidomide throughout the US.
The US FDA refused to approve thalidomide for marketing and distribution. However, the drug was distributed in large quantities for testing purposes, after the American distributor and manufacturer Richardson-Merrell had applied for its approval in September 1960. The official in charge of the FDA review, Frances Oldham Kelsey, did not rely on information from the company, which did not include any test results. Richardson-Merrell was called on to perform tests and report the results. The company demanded approval six times, and was refused each time. Nevertheless, a total of 17 children with thalidomide-induced malformations were born in the US. Oldham Kelsey was given a Presidential award for distinguished service from the federal government for not allowing thalidomide to be approved for sale in the US.
In Canada, the history of thalidomide dates back to April 1, 1961. There were many different forms sold, with the most common variant being called Talimol. Two months after Talimol went on sale, pharmaceutical companies sent physicians letters warning about the risk of birth defects. It was not until March 2, 1962, that both drugs were banned from the Canadian market by the FDD and, soon afterward, physicians were warned to destroy their supplies.
Shortly after the teratogenic properties of thalidomide were recognized in the mid-1960s, its anti-cancer potential was explored and two clinical trials were conducted in people with advanced cancer, including some people with multiple myeloma; the trials were inconclusive.
Little further work was done with thalidomide in cancer until the 1990s.
Judah Folkman pioneered studies into the role of angiogenesis (the proliferation and growth of blood vessels) in the development of cancer, and in the early 1970s had shown that solid tumors could not expand without it. In 1993 he surprised the scientific world by hypothesizing the same was true of blood cancers, and the next year he published work showing that a biomarker of angiogenesis was higher in all people with cancer, but especially high in people with blood cancers, and other evidence emerged as well. Meanwhile, a member of his lab, Robert D’Amato, who was looking for angiogenesis inhibitors, discovered in 1994 that thalidomide inhibited angiogenesis and was effective in suppressing tumor growth in rabbits. Around that time, the wife of a man who was dying of multiple myeloma and whom standard treatments had failed, called Folkman asking him about his anti-angiogenesis ideas. Folkman persuaded the patient’s doctor to try thalidomide, and that doctor conducted a clinical trial of thalidomide for people with multiple myeloma in which about a third of the subjects responded to the treatment. The results of that trial were published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1999.
After further work was done by Celgene and others, in 2006 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval for thalidomide in combination with dexamethasone for the treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients.
It was also evaluated whether thalidomide can be combined with melphalan and prednisone for patients with multiple myeloma. This combination of drugs probably results in an increase of the overall survival.
NHS patients in England with newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma can be treated with Celgene’s Revlimid as maintenance therapy after a stem cell transplant, after new guidance from NICE.
The cost-effectiveness agency has backed interim funding for Revlimid (lenalidomide) in this setting via the Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF), which provides temporary reimbursement for medicines until further data can be gathered that can help NICE with its cost-effectiveness calculations.
Last September, NICE turned down NHS funding of Revlimid for this use, saying that the cost-effectiveness estimates were “uncertain” because of limitations in its modelling that meant it “might not reflect what happens in the NHS in England”.
Now, Revlimid is the first treatment to be made available for newly-diagnosed, post-transplant patients on the NHS, providing an alternative to the standard ‘watch-and-wait’ approach. That means that patients can receive active treatment to keep their cancer in remission for the first time.
Across the UK, around 1,500 newly diagnosed myeloma patients undergo a transplant each year, and most of them eventually relapse. The first remission is a critical period for patients, as it can be an indicator of the overall survival from the disease.
Celgene – a subsidiary of Bristol-Myers Squibb – said there are around 1,150 people in England who could now be eligible for treatment with Revlimid. The drug has been approved for this use by the Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC) since last September.
In two phase 3 trials – CALGB 100104 and IFM 2005-02 – Revlimid given as a daily oral dose after a stem cell transplant was able to extend the time patients survived without disease progression compared to placebo.
There was also a trend towards improved overall survival, although the trials weren’t statistically powerful enough for that to be a reliable result.
“We are delighted with this outcome,” commented Laura Kerby, chief executive of Myeloma UK.
“Patients who receive lenalidomide maintenance after high-dose therapy and stem cell transplant have a significant increase in overall survival, so the decision to make this available through the NHS is fantastic news,” she added.
The latest decision comes two years after Revlimid was cleared by NICE for NHS use as a treatment for newly-diagnosed, transplant-ineligible myeloma patients. It can also be used as a second- or third-line option in combination with other drugs for relapsed myeloma.
Revlimid is BMS’ biggest product, bringing in almost $9 billion in worldwide revenues in the first nine months of 2020. In addition to myeloma it is also used for a wide range of blood cancers, including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and various types of lymphoma.
I have earlier told you that the five Masters concerned with the initial stages of the organization of the Hierarchy on earth are the Master K.H., the Master Morya, the Master R., the Master Who started the labor movement in the modern world, and myself, the so-called Master D.K.
The division of labor is here of great interest. In my June message for 1948, I referred to the five specialized energies which were at that time released to carry forward their impersonal task. Each of these energies is concerned with the desired organization, for it must ever be remembered that though the organization which we are considering is concerned with the interior or subjective work of the Hierarchy, the repercussions and the resultant effects will take place on earth, with physical plane effects, because the old occult truism “as above, so below” will be rapidly and objectively demonstrated. This result and the effects produced will constitute one of the modes whereby the Hierarchy will prove its factual presence on earth.
The Ashram of the Master K.H. is already assuming an increased stimulating potency, but it will nevertheless be one of the last to manifest objectively on the physical plane. The mission of that Ashram is to produce the energy which will make possible and definite the reappearance of the Christ. That reappearance is the major preoccupation of the Master K.H. and His group of initiates and disciples. The first step taken by the Ashram was embodied – as far as all of you are concerned – in the pamphlet entitled The Reappearance of the Christ (Wesak Message, May 1947). To this must be added the vitalization and the stimulation of the two-thousand-year-old thought-forms which men, down the centuries, have created in anticipation of His coming or advent. The movement toward expectancy and preparation is now rapidly gaining momentum. This was the first concrete result of the combined desire of this second ray Ashram. However, the work being done in this Ashram is more definitely concerned with three lines of activity. These are:
The preparation of the many combined Ashrams, leading to externalization.
The formulation of the techniques and disciplines which will be of service to the initiate or disciple who is making the primary effort to function objectively, to work before the screen of life and not behind the scenes, as hitherto, and to develop that “resistant capacity” which is needed to withstand the violent impacts of physical plane living.
The mental and spiritual registration of the plans of the Christ, and the consequent development of that skill in action which will permit these plans to materialize correctly.
Within the second ray Ashram of the Master K.H. and His affiliated groups (such as the Ashram for which I am responsible) it is the energy of wisdom which is being effectively used. It might be said that this dual energy, hitherto a fused and blended energy, is today working as a true duality. The energy of wisdom is active within all the Ashrams (on all rays and under all the Masters); the energy of love is directed primarily towards the third great planetary center, Humanity, stimulating the aura of that mass of living units so that their “magnetic appeal will be the outstanding quality of their divine approach.” The directing Agents for this dual activity are the Master K.H. and a chosen group of His senior initiates and disciples, of whom I am not one, because I have another task committed to me.
The Master K.H. is therefore constantly in close association with the Christ, the Head of the Hierarchy. Christ is today, with the aid of the Lord of the World and the Buddha, preparing Himself for the most difficult task with which He has ever been confronted. It is not a matter of the Christ issuing forth from the High Place where He is today to be found, and suddenly appearing among men; it is not a case of His taking infant form and growing into His work with advancing years; it is not a case of His being instantly recognized and acclaimed by millions of miserable human beings awaiting liberation. None of these ideas or hopes forms any part of His plan, nor are they possible. No Member of the Hierarchy, and certainly not its Supreme Head, attempts to bring about results which are doomed to failure; presented thus, they would be bound to fail, because the point of sensitivity of humanity makes failure inevitable – if success is expected along these most ordinary lines.
Skill in action, wise and understanding judgment, the adaptation of present affairs to the desired future, the coordination of the work to be done, and the clear enunciation of the platform upon which the new teaching must be founded, plus the survey (if I may so express it) of the foundations upon which the new structure of the coming civilization must be founded – it is with these things that the Christ is at this time concerned. You can realize, therefore, the tremendous and cooperative activity with which the Master K.H. and His Ashram are concerned. The stimulation of that activity comes from two directions: necessarily from Shamballa, from the Buddha and from the Avatar of Synthesis, and increasingly from the world of men, as expectancy, hope and demand combine to make their united appeal.
The Ashram or group center through which the Master Morya works is also exceedingly busy. It is obvious to you that as this is a first ray Ashram, the energy coming from the Avatar of Synthesis will make its primary impact upon this Ashram, which provides the line of least resistance. There, it is scientifically stepped down or broken down, prior to distribution to the Ashrams of the five Masters engaged in the work of preparation.
The highest aspect possible of assimilation by the Hierarchy is directed by the Masters towards the Christ and is used by Him in His individual and planned preparatory work. Though He demonstrated when here before that His mission or work had a group or brotherhood objective, it is well known in hierarchical circles that first ray synthesis is something higher still than unity, and that even the Christ has somewhat to grasp anent this new potency – coming both from Shamballa or from the Father (as the Christ used to call that emanating source), and also from extra-planetary sources. Above all, He has the difficult task of training or adapting His physical vehicle so that it can assimilate this extraordinary high potency and, at the same time, keep it in a condition in which He can move outward on the physical plane among men.
The Christian Church has laid so much emphasis on Christ’s unique position as the one and only Son of God that great error has crept in and has been fostered for centuries; Christ Himself foresaw the possibility of this error and tried to offset it by pointing out that we are all the “Sons of God” and that “greater things than I do shall you do” – a statement which no commentators have ever understood or adequately explained. The occult fact is that there is no being on Earth, from the very lowest form of life to the very highest, who is not moving onward towards a greater and finer expression of divinity, and Christ Himself is no exception to this universal evolutionary law. He is therefore, at this time and because He is preparing to raise the entire human family nearer to God, laying Himself open to certain powerful inflowing energies, absorbing into Himself streams of spiritual force, and undergoing a dynamic stimulation which is entirely new to Him; this constitutes His testing for the exalted initiation which now confronts Him; it constitutes also the sacrifice He is making in order to complete His work on Earth and bring a new salvation to humanity.
The Christ is working, therefore, in very close cooperation with the Master Morya, and also with the Manu (one of the three Heads of the Hierarchy), and these three – the Christ, the Manu and the Master Morya – create a triangle of energies into which (and through which) the energy of the Avatar of Synthesis can pour, finding right direction under Their combined efforts.
On the physical plane, the initiates and the disciples working in the Ashram of the Master Morya are primarily occupied with the expression of synthesis in the world of politics and of government, and with offsetting wrong approaches to synthesis, seeking to preserve freedom in unity. It is a subjective synthesis for which they work – a synthesis which will express itself in an outer differentiation. This synthesis will define the many aspects of the essential, basic unity which, working out under the stimulation of the energy of synthesis, will bring about eventual peace and understanding on earth – a peace which will preserve individual and national cultures, but which will subordinate them to the good of the whole of humanity.
We come now to the preparatory work being done by the Master Who started what is called by you “the labor movement.” This is regarded by the Hierarchy as one of the most successful attempts in all history to awaken the masses of men (in the brackets called middle class and lower class) to general betterment, and thus set up a momentum which would, occultly speaking, “swing them into light.”
Along with the development of the labor movement, mass education came into being, with the result that – from the angle of developed intelligence – the entire level of conscious awareness was universally raised. There is still much illiteracy, but the average citizen in all the western democracies and in the Soviet Union is as well educated as the intellectual man in the Middle Ages. You have, in this activity, an outstanding instance of how the Masters work, for (to the average onlooker) the labor movement arose from within the masses and the working classes; it was a spontaneous development, based upon the thinking and the teaching of a mere handful of men who were regarded primarily as agitators and trouble makers; they were in reality a group of disciples (many of them unconscious of their esoteric status) who were cooperating with the Law of Evolution and also with the hierarchical Plan. They were not particularly advanced disciples, but they were affiliated with some Ashram (according to their ray), and were therefore subject to impression. Had they been advanced disciples or initiates, their work would have been futile, for their presentation of the Plan would not have been adapted to the level of the intelligence of the then totally uneducated masses composing labor.
This Master works primarily with the intelligentsia, and He is therefore a third ray Master – upon the Ray of Active Intelligence. His Ashram is occupied with the problems of industry, and the goal of all the thinking, all the planning and all the work of impressing receptive minds is directed towards spiritualizing the concepts of the labor party in every country, and of industrialists, thus turning them towards the goal of right sharing, as a major step towards right human relations. This Master therefore cooperates with the Master R. – Who is the Head of the third ray Ashram, and Who is also one of the Triangle of Forces which controls the greater Ashram of the Hierarchy Itself. The Ashram of this Master (Who has always withheld His name from public knowledge) is a lesser Ashram within the major third ray Ashram, just as my Ashram lies within the ring-pass-not of the Ashram of the Master K.H. This Master is necessarily an Englishman, for the industrial revolution started nearly one hundred years ago in England, and the potency of the work done is related to its mass effect and to the results achieved in every land by labor and its methods. All the great labor organizations, national and international, are loosely knit together subjectively, because in each group this Master has His disciples who are working constantly to hold the movement in line with the divine Plan. It is well to bear in mind that all great movements on earth demonstrate both good and evil; the evil has to be subdued and dissipated, or relegated to its right proportional place, before that which is good and in line with hierarchical planning can find true expression. What is true of the individual is true also of groups. Before the soul can express itself through the medium of the personality, that personality has to be subdued, controlled, purified and dedicated to service. It is this controlling, subduing process which is going on now, and it is vociferously fought by the selfish and ambitious elements.
Nevertheless, the work of this Master is outstandingly successful in preparing the intellectual principle of the masses for eventual right recognition of the Christ. A right sense of values is being developed, and in the right direction of this potent labor group in every land lies the foundation of the new civilization.
The Ashram of this Master is therefore occupied with worldwide economic problems, and also with a direct attack upon the basic materialism to be found in the modern world. The problems of barter and exchange, the significance of money, the value of gold (a basic symbol of the third Ray of Active Intelligence), the production of right attitudes towards material living, and the entire process of right distribution are among the many problems dealt with in this Ashram; the work done is enormous and of great importance in preparing men’s mind for the return of the Christ and for the New Age which He will inaugurate. Capitalists and labor leaders, financial experts and thinking workers, and members of all the differing ideologies which are prevalent in the world today are to be found actively working within this Ashram. Many of them are what the orthodox religious man or the hide-bound occult student would regard as non-spiritual, yet all of them are in reality deeply spiritual in the correct sense, but they care not for labels, for schools of thought nor for academic, esoteric teaching. They exemplify within themselves a livingness which is the hallmark of discipleship.
The time has come when the first and major principle governing true esotericism must be grasped as conditioning all hierarchical workers: Right Motive.
The time has come when the quality of ashramic work is recognized, first of all, as being: Selfless Service.
The time has come when men everywhere must realize that entry into a Master’s Ashram is dependent upon Intelligence, plusright motive and service.
When these three factors are present in any human being, the Masters know that good material is presented to Them for training. Today the world is full of such men and women, and in them lies the dominant hope of the future.
One more point I would like to discuss. Through the work of this Master and His Ashram the “sealing of the door where evil dwells” will come about, because it is essentially this group which (if I dare so express it) is coping with raw materialism and the false values which it engenders. The door has to be sealed by a vast mass of coordinated human forces, and not by one or two enlightened men. This fact must be grasped by you. The energy of love-wisdom, the energy of the second ray, can and will bring in the Kingdom of God; the energy of the divine will can and will galvanize with its dynamic potency the entire human family to the point where a group transition will take place from the fourth into the fifth kingdom. It is nevertheless this third ray energy, as wielded in the Ashram of this English Master, under the direction of the Mahachohan, the Lord of Civilization, which will force a right attitude toward materialism, which will bring about a balance between the material values and the spiritual, and which will eventually thrust back into futility the Forces of Evil which have for so long distracted the world of men. I am choosing my words with care.
You will note, therefore, how the three divine aspects are united in one great movement to bring in the Kingdom of God, and that the first step towards this longed-for consummation is the appearance of the Masters upon the physical plane, and then, somewhat later, the reappearance of the Christ.
We now come to a consideration of the vast Ashram controlled by the Master R. He is the Lord of Civilization and His is the task of bringing in the new civilization for which all men wait. It is a third ray Ashram, and therefore enfolds within its ring-pass-not all the Ashrams to be found upon the third Ray of Active Intelligence, upon the fifth Ray of Concrete Science and upon the seventh Ray of Ceremonial Order. All these Ashrams are working under the general direction of the Master R. He works primarily through the Masters of these three types of ray energy. He Himself at this time is occupied with seventh ray energy, which is the order-producing energy upon our planet.
This is the Ray of Ceremonial Order, and through the activity of its energy, when correctly directed and used, a right rhythm is being imposed upon all aspects of human living. An effort is being constantly made to arrest the ugly chaos of the present and to produce the ordered beauty of the future. The major weapon now being used by the combined Forces of Evil is chaos, disruption, lack of established security, and consequent fear. The potency of these evil forces is exceedingly great because they belong to no one group of people and to all the ideologies. The chaos produced by indifference, the chaos produced by uncertainty, the chaos produced by fear, by starvation, by insecurity, by watching others suffer innocently, and the chaos produced by the warring and conflicting ambitious elements in every nation (without exception)- these are the factors with which the Master R. is attempting to deal; the task is one of supreme difficulty. The entire rhythm of international thinking has to be altered, and that constitutes a slow and arduous task; the evil personalities which, in every country, are responsible for the chaos and uncertainty, have eventually to be replaced by those who can work in cooperation with the rhythm of the seventh ray, and thus produce ordered beauty.
Excerpted from “The Externalization of the Hierarchy – Section IV – Stages in the Externalization”